A Whiff of Inflation – M&A Valuations Lead the Way

Posted on July 17, 2014

(Originally Published on Axial Forum)

Since the 1970s, many of us have feared the threat of inflation looming just around the corner. Within the past year, economists and central bankers have led us to believe the inflation dragon has been permanently relegated to a dark hole, never to rain fire on the kingdom of men. We’re told that deflation is the real threat and that governments can continually run large deficits without reawakening the dragon. Recently, reality has intervened, however, to remind us that economists and central bankers aren’t infallible. U. S. Core CPI and global consumer prices have taken a sharp turn upward.

While this rate of price increase will have profound implications for business owners if it continues, that’s a story for another day.

Our story here affects these entrepreneurs more directly. Inflation comes as no surprise to those of us in the M&A business. We have watched for some time as the M&A market reheated and deal valuations reached levels not seen since 2007 – the peak of the financial bubble. We now have strong confirmation that this trend is not reserved solely for the megadeals on CNBC.

 

For larger deals that confirmation comes from Pitchbook which reported last week that, for the first half of 2014, average deal valuations reached an all time high of 11.5 times EBITDA.

 

 Median EBITDA Multiples for Buyouts (H1 2014)
For smaller buyouts, the story is the same. Andy Greenberg, CEO of GF DATA®, is in a unique position to understand middle market M&A pricing trends. His company maintains a very comprehensive database of actual transaction values in the sub $250 million marketplace. In our recent interview, Andy shared his perspective confirming our belief that lower middle market M&A purchase multiples have reached historically high levels over the past 12 to 18
read the rest

Will a Superabundance of Capital Lead to an M&A Boom?

Posted on February 17, 2013

Authored by John Mason

“Bain & Company, the consultancy, forecasts a ‘superabundance of capital’ between now and 2020. In a recent report it argued that markets would be distorted by surpluses in Asian and Middle Eastern countries and private investment funds.

“It estimates that the world’s financial assets will outbalance its domestic product by ten to one – it will have $900 trillion of financial assets compared with $90 trillion of GDP – by 2020. The result will be a ‘world that is structurally awash in capital’ chasing few opportunities.

“‘Capital superabundance will increase the frequency, intensity, size and longevity of asset bubbles. The propensity for bubbles to form will be magnified as yield-hungry investors race to put capital into assets that show the potential to generate superior returns,’ the report concludes.”

These words from John Gapper appeared over the weekend in the Financial Times of London.

The signs of this possibility, according to Gapper, are two: first, the presence of lots and lots of cash on the balance sheets of corporations, hedge funds, and other financial interests; and second, the apparent movement in the buyout and acquisition market that reflects a growing belief among international investors that the US economy is stabilizing, the eurozone crisis has reached its final stages, and that elsewhere in the world economic recovery continues and capital flows are increasing. Apparently with these events, the desire to take on more risk has risen.

I have written for three years or so about the build up of cash on the balance sheets of corporations. Companies that never had issued long-term debt before took advantage of exceedingly low interest rates to increase their cache of money. The basic reasoning behind this buildup was that these financially sound firms would “make a killing” as the United States economy began to grow faster … read the rest

Dell Deal: A Sign Of The Future?

Posted on February 9, 2013

Authored by John Mason

Things are changing in the financial markets. Financial institutions are starting to make money again in mortgages. Money market funds are “flush with cash.” Collateralized Debt Obligations (CDOs) and Collateralized Loan Obligations (CLOs) are staging a comeback.

And, now there is the $24 billion deal by Michael Dell to take his company private. The interpretation of this transaction that I am most interested in is the one being mentioned in almost all the stories coming out in the press: “This is the largest corporate privatization since the financial crisis and the largest tech buyout ever.”

I am not interested so much in whether or not Dell, Inc. (DELL) is eventually saved. What I am interested in is what is happening in finance. It appears as if money is being mobilized again.

Goodness knows, the Federal Reserve has done just about everything it can to push money out into the economy. Comedians have gotten serious about QE1 and QE2 and QE3 … and QEfinity!

It has only been in the past six months or so that there has been any evidence of funds creeping out of the commercial banking system into other parts of the economy. But now, evidence seems to be growing of money flowing into other parts of the economy. This latest transaction, the creation of a large buyout deal, with the growing possibility that others are thinking about more deals, or even mergers and acquisitions, is very encouraging.

Over the past couple of years, myself and others have wondered about all the cash being built up in the coffers of large corporations. It seemed as if these large organizations were piling up cash hoards in preparation for moving in on less well-off institutions and making deals while the getting was good and while interest … read the rest

Citigroup Changes Reflect Banking Industry in Transition

Posted on December 6, 2012

John M. Mason

Banking, in the past, has always been about people. Banking was built up around customer relationships and you had to have people to create customer relationships.

Bank of America (BAC) has about 275,000 employees; Wells Fargo (WFC) has some 265,000; JPMorgan Chase (JPM) has about 260,000; and Citigroup (C) also has around 260,000 employees.

Banks needed people to relate to their customers, to entertain their customers, to solve problems for their customers and to smile at their customers. People, we were told, were the “face” of the bank.

But, observers of the actions taken by Citigroup argue that this is only the first step, according to a piece in the Wall Street Journal, the “opening salvo in a wave of cutbacks, business sales and other moves that could reduce the company’s global reach.” In another article in the Journal it is argued that this move “had better not turn out to be the whole show. Citi still needs reinvention.”

Departments need to go. Subsidiaries need to go. And, so on and so forth. The bank needs to be structured for the twenty-first century.

I certainly agree that commercial banks need to restructure. And, I certainly agree that banks need to become less of a “people” business. But, this is all a part of the evolution of the banking industry.

Let me begin with a true story.

In 1972, I joined the faculty of the Finance Department of the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania. This department was one of the leaders in the “new wave” of financial research talking about “betas” and the “CAPM model” and other such exotic topics of the time.

My background was banking and there were no courses at the time at Wharton about the management or … read the rest

The Bankers Are Way Ahead Of The Regulators

Posted on November 20, 2012

The Financial Stability Board (FSB), a global financial policy group comprised of regulators and central bankers, just released new information on the status of the “shadow banking” industry. First, the FSB reported that from 2002 through 2011 the shadow banking industry grew by $41 trillion. Second, the shadow banking industry now is estimated to have $67 trillion in assets.

Note, as of November 7, 2012, the Federal Reserve H.8 statistical release shows that the total assets of all commercial banks in the United States amounts to a little less than $13 trillion. Third, the United States has the largest amount of shadow banking assets in the world, about $23 trillion.

Note, the share of activity based in the United States “has decline from 44 percent in 2005 to 35 percent in 2011.” The eurozone has $22 trillion in assets while Great Britain has $9 trillion.

What is a shadow bank? Lord Adair Turner, the U.K. regulator that led the FSBs work stated, “If it looks like a bank and quacks like a bank, it has got to be subject to bank-like safe-guards.” So, shadow banking is like pornography, it is what is in the eye of the beholder … in this case the regulator. It looks, therefore, as if we are in for another major round of rules and regulation for the finance industry … worldwide!

Looking for a job? I have seen many, many references to the health industry as the place to be if you want to get employed over the next decade or so. Looks to me like we have another growth industry here! If you want to get employed in a good steady job for an extended period of time become a regulator of the financial industry. Sounds like there are going to be plenty of jobs available and … read the rest

Evolving Financial Institutions

Posted on November 20, 2012

So much of the world is in transition, why do people want the commercial banking industry to be what it was many years ago? This is just not going to happen.

As I have written many, many times, finance is information! We have seen, over the past fifty years or so how the advancements in information technology have contributed, for better or worse, to the innovations that have taken place in financial institutions and financial instruments.

Given the continuing advancements in the information technology field how can we not expect the financial field to continue to evolve? Check out all that is being done in mobile banking these days. At least in my area of the world I am seeing more and more advertisements about mobile banking and what it does for the customer.

And, this is just the ground level. More and more people you talk with and read about claim that they have only gone into a bank office once or twice in the past two or three years. And, the only reason they went into the bank was to complain about not receiving notifications from the bank that their interest rates were being dropped. If this is not enough, read David Wolman’s book, “The End of Money” (Da Capo Press, 2012).

But, who is going to even keep their money in a typical commercial bank? I don’t. I work with an institution that satisfies my banking needs and ties all my financial relationships together so that I can move seamlessly from one asset class to another almost instantaneously.

How about my mortgage? (Yes, I have one!) The commercial bank I know set me up with their affiliated mortgage that immediately sold the mortgage to Wells Fargo (WFC), which now just services the loan because it is owned by Fannie … read the rest

Why is 20 % of the American Workforce Unemployed?

Posted on September 25, 2012

Originally Published at Global Economic Intersection under the title Buddy Can You Spare a Dime?

Written by , Capital Matters

Republicans are heartless monsters who have no compassion for the victims of a financial crash they caused by manipulating Wall Street.”

Democrats are committed to destroy the American system by redistributing the hard-earned products and services of America’s businesses to shiftless moochers.”

duel-chipmunks-360x361

Wow, are we making progress in the current political debate!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Follow up:

Cyclical or Structural?

For economists the discussion revolves around a more civil discourse on whether the current high level of unemployment results from a severe cyclical downturn or from a structural change in the American economy. The Federal Reserve has forcefully adopted the cyclical downturn mantra, committing $500 billion per year to the assumption that, with more financial stimulus, the jobs will come back.

Buffalo Springfield’s insight from the 1960s is still valid:

I think it’s time we stop, hey, what’s that sound?
Everybody look what’s going down
What a field day for the heat
A thousand people in the street
Singing songs and carrying signs
Mostly say, hooray for our side

A Big Bet With Millions of Human Poker Chips

We are in the process of making an enormous bet with the American economy. The risks are not trivial: inflation, deflation, financial and social collapse are just a few. Yet what if this bet is being made based upon a misunderstanding of the problem with which we are faced.

Steven Hansen recently produced a rather depressing chart showing that, despite a period of steady economic recovery, civilian employment in relation to population flatlined beginning in late 2009, after a very sharp drop from 63% to 58% during the financial crisis.

employment-population-ratio-2007-2012

The Robot read the rest

August 2012 – The Future of Small Business Financing

Posted on August 23, 2012

Everyone loves small business.

At least that’s what the politicians want you to believe.

The reality is different. Small business is under attack from every quarter. Government policies favor large banks and large multinational businesses. Credit is tight and the banks favor the larger borrowers. Increased regulations stifle innovation and protect large incumbents that can afford teams of lawyers and lobbyists.

What’s the little guy to do? Waiting for the politicians to change the system is wishful thinking. Smart business people find ways to prosper in every environment.


And the current environment is not great for small firms. The Federal Reserve Senior Loan Officer survey has recently confirmed what we have suspected for some time: banks have been more generous in easing underwriting requirements for larger companies than they have been for smaller companies. Paynet, which maintains data on 17 million small business loans, reports that lending conditions for small firms have deteriorated in recent months after two years of bounce back from the 2009 bottom.  For additional details go to the full article on Capital Matters.


Financial Market Risk
And there’s a risk that things could get a lot worse for businesses that don’t tie down their financing soon.  We just published an article on Seeking Alpha that has received a great deal of attention with more than 14,400 page views so far. Our thesis is that the Fed’s zero interest rate policy has led to a situation where longer term treasury bonds are trading at yield levels that provide a spread to inflation far below the historical norms. Markets eventually return to their mean and often overshoot it so there is growing risk in the longer term debt market. Our concern is two-fold. First, that individual investors need to be aware of the potential impact of this return to the mean … read the rest

The Future of Community Banking

Posted on August 19, 2012

In a recent announcement, First Virginia Community Bank announced the acquisition of 1st Commonwealth Bank, a small de novo bank started in 2009.  The transaction is pending regulatory approval and will be treated as stock for stock and the value to book was about 97%.

This will become a common trend over the next three to five years with a Wall Street projection that some 20% to 30% of banks will be merged before it is all done.

Why is this typical of what the future will hold?

First, the constant pressure of maintaining high regulatory capital ratios requires banks to reach certain efficiency ratios sooner rather than later to be profitable,

Second, the access to capital for all banks is limited, at best.  Hence, there will be a “survival of the fittest” banking industry environment with each bank striving to be the dominant bank in its market(s),

Third, to be competitive and sufficiently profitable to maintain such a position in the market, community banks must achieve a minimum asset size of around $1 billion.

What is behind the higher regulatory capital ratios?

The lingering effects of the economy and the Great Recession have made a significant impression on all banks, especially those serving their communities.  The asset devaluation of real estate (both residential and commercial) took a significant chunk out of capital and there are no expectations for a quick recovery.  Hence, many banks are in a precarious position in which the future is still unknown.

Further compounding this is a recent announcement by the Federal Reserve that suggested it would likely implement Basel III  and make its capital requirements applicable for all banks, large and small.  Simplified, Basel III sets new rules for the capital ratios based on a bank’s complexity of risk-based assets.  In the past, there were only bucketed assets … read the rest

QE Anyone?

Posted on August 10, 2012

If anyone doubts we are moving to more monetary accommodation, take a look at the excerpt below from last night’s U.S. Financial Data release from the St. Louis Fed. The lower right hand corner reflects the most recent trends.

In June, we posted an article indicating a seeming correlation between the trend in direction and magnitude of U.S. M2 growth and U.S. economic activity. The decline in the M2 growth rate has now turned, and is headed up again, as you can see below, but the turn is not as dramatic as the growth in the Monetary Base.

We’ve previously stated our concern that the U.S. could be heading into a period of rapidly increasing inflation, similar to that experienced in the early 1970s that led to many years of stagflation, only ending with Mr. Volcker’s monetary castor oil. We’ve got all the ingredients, including this summer’s rapid runup in commodity prices. The past twelve month the GDP price deflator has dropped from 2.4% to 1.9% on an annual basis, averaging a bit above the Fed’s 2% target. 2-3% is in the range where the 1970’s inflation began to take off. Yet, we’re in a period where many, if not most, observers have been talking recession and increased likelihood of deflation. Real inflation will come as a black swan for many, with significant implications for both fixed income and equity markets.

Could the current round of easing be the spark that finally ignites the inflationary flame? There are lots of reasons to suspect that’s possible. Calculated Risk just supported a growing belief that housing may finally be bottoming. Declining home prices have been a primary force that’s kept inflation in check for the past few years. Add to that a renewed commodity spiral, annual wage inflation in China hitting 13-15% and evidence that the read the rest

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